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医師は、患者の腸内で生きている虫を見つけた後、寿司に対して警告します

医師は、患者の腸内で生きている虫を見つけた後、寿司に対して警告します


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日本のように生の魚を食べるのが人気のある場所でよく見られます

欧米では寿司の人気が高まっていることから、この状態は悪化していると医師は言う。

医師は生または調理不足の消費について警告しています と呼ばれる状態につながる アニサキスによると、ワームが食道、胃、または腸に付着します。 疾病管理予防センター。最近の事件の1つは、ポルトガルから来た32歳の男性で、食事後1週間、嘔吐、腹痛、発熱を経験しました。 生の魚 から 日本食レストラン, 電信 報告。

医師は内視鏡検査を行い、身もだえを見つけました いも虫 男の腸の内壁に潜り込んだ。ロスネットで幼虫を取り除いた後、患者の症状は改善しました。

症例報告、リスボンのエガスモニス病院の消化器病専門医であるジョアナカルモ博士は、この状態が「急性腹症」または突然の激しい腹痛を模倣している可能性があると警告しています。その他の症状には、吐き気、嘔吐、消化器出血、腸閉塞、消化管の穿孔および腹膜炎が含まれます。

寿司について知らなかった10のことを読むには、ここをクリックしてください。


科学/医学:腸内寄生虫ペスト第三世界:健康:ほとんど認識されていない問題は、発展途上国で進歩するための障害と見なされています。

第三世界は多くの健康と経済の問題に直面していますが、第三世界の国々の将来の繁栄への重大な障害を表す、ほとんど認識されていない惨劇が1つあります。それは腸内寄生虫です。

寄生虫によって引き起こされる病気は、マラリアから先進国ではほとんど知られていない多くの病気に至るまで多様なグループであり、制御するためにさまざまな方法を必要とします。特別なカテゴリーは腸内寄生虫であり、比較的無害であると考えられていたため、最近まであまり注目されていませんでした。最も一般的な例は、フックワーム、回虫、鞭虫です。

最近の研究によると、これらのワームによる感染は、以前に信じられていたよりも、エネルギーと幸福を奪う上ではるかに大きな役割を果たしています。そして、研究は苦痛の薬物治療の増加に拍車をかけました、アプローチは非常に物議を醸すことが証明されました。

恐らく、飢饉とマラリアだけが、発展途上国における悲惨と経済的損失の主要な生産者として腸内寄生虫感染を上回っています。国際保健の専門家は、今日世界中で感染している個人の数は、おそらく50年前に感染した数と同じか、それを超える可能性があると推定しています。

彼らは、今日生きている50億人の少なくとも4分の1がワームを持っており、多くの場合、複数の種類であると言います。大多数は、栄養失調が病気や倦怠感の主な原因でもある発展途上国の同じ個人です。

「恐らく、重度の子供の栄養失調の全症例の半分にもなるでしょう。 。 。主に食物の不足によってではなく、腸内寄生虫、発熱、感染症、特に食欲を低下させ、エネルギーを燃焼させ、子供の体重を排出する感染症によって引き起こされます」と、エグゼクティブのジェームズP.グラントは宣言します。国連児童基金の事務局長。

専門家は、開発途上国における寄生虫病の問題は非常に深刻であるため、病気が制御されるまで、経済発展、人口管理、対外援助のいずれもこれらの国の繁栄を促進するのに十分ではないと警告します。

世界保健機関の寄生虫病の責任者であるアンドリュー・デイビス博士は、次のように述べています。個人とコミュニティの両方。」

前世紀以来、衛生設備、きれいな水、および個人の衛生状態が腸内寄生虫を制御する方法であることが知られています。主に難民の人口による感染のポケットを除いて、それが腸内寄生虫が米国で大きな問題ではない理由です。国際援助機関は今世紀のほとんどを、浄水、トイレ建設プロジェクト、健康教育プログラムに資金を提供することにより、第三世界における衛生状態と衛生状態の重要な役割に対する一般の認識を向上させるために努力してきました。

世界保健機関は現在、農村部と都市部のスラムに住む何億人もの人々に飲料水と衛生サービスを拡大するという10年にわたる推進力を終わらせています。利益が得られ、推進が続く一方で、ユニセフは、8億人が依然として安全な水供給にアクセスできず、13億人が適切な衛生サービスを欠いていると推定しています。

もう1つの問題は、トイレを使用して習慣を変えるように人々を説得することの難しさです。トイレは、閉じ込められ、維持するのが面倒だと考えられています。医療従事者がようやく住民に新しく設置されたピットラトリンを使用させることができたあるメキシコの村では、子供が座席の開口部から落ちたときに協力が突然終了しました。

抗ワーム薬の幅広い選択が以前から利用可能でしたが、発展途上国で働く医師はそれらを広範囲に使用することに消極的でした。彼らは、適切な衛生設備と良好な衛生状態がないため、個人がすぐに再感染するため、広範囲にわたる薬物治療が経済的に役に立たなくなると考えています。

しかし、最近、薬物治療に対する伝統的な態度が変化している可能性があるという兆候が見られますが、治療が衛生状態による予防への関心の低下につながる可能性があることを恐れる人々からの反対がないわけではありません。過去数年間の新しい研究では、コミュニティ内で重度に感染した子供を治療することは、コミュニティ全体に健康上の利益をもたらし、費用を正当化する可能性があることが示されています。

コーネル大学の国際栄養プログラムのディレクターであるマイケルC.レイサム博士によると、過去5年間の研究により、最も脆弱な年齢層である子供たちの感染による健康への影響が以前よりもはるかに深刻であることが明らかになっています。信じた。たとえば、回虫に感染した10億人のうち、約100万人が腸閉塞を起こし、その結果、年間5万人から10万人が死亡しています。

回虫、鉤虫、鞭虫はまた、貧血を引き起こしたり、栄養素の吸収を減らしたり、食物中のタンパク質から来るエネルギーを吸収したりすることで栄養失調の衰弱効果を高め、発育阻害や他の感染症に対する脆弱性の増加をもたらします。

ケニアで実施された最近の研究で、ケニア医学研究所とカナダのマクマスター大学のレイサムと他の研究者は、抗ワーム薬であるアルベンダゾールの単回投与で子供を治療すると、未治療の子供よりも成長率が非常に大幅に改善されることを示しました。この薬は、3種類すべてのワームのライフサイクルの各段階に対して有効であるため、価値があると見なされています。

ジョンズホプキンス公衆衛生大学院のクライヴシフ博士は、研究で数千人の子供を治療し、良い結果を得るのは1つのことですが、国際機関にとっても、世界規模でそれを行うことは別のことです。 「それは倫理的に必要です」と彼は言いました、「しかし手頃な価格ではありません。」それにもかかわらず、米国疾病対策センターのピーターシャンツ博士によると、ケニアとモントセラトの研究の肯定的な発見を検証するためにCDCが独自のフィールド試験を計画するには、薬物アプローチへの関心が十分です。

腸内寄生虫PLAGUETHIRD WORLD HOOKWORM幼虫は人間の皮膚に浸透し(1)、血流に入り、心臓に運ばれ(2)、肺動脈を介して肺に到達し、肺胞に浸透して気管支に入り(3)、気管を上咽頭に上昇して飲み込まれます(4 )。成熟したワームは十二指腸と空腸で発生し、粘膜に噛み付いて血液を吸います(5)。受精卵は糞便中に排出されます(6)。鞭虫卵は汚染された食物と一緒に摂取され(1)、幼虫は卵を残して成虫の形に成長し(2)、成虫は盲腸と虫垂に移動し、そこで生きて繁殖します(3)。受精卵は糞便中に排出されます(4)。食物を摂取した卵(1)、幼虫は小腸に出現し(2)、腸壁を貫通して心臓に到達し(3)、肺動脈から肺に到達し、肺胞を貫通して気管支に入り(4)、気管を喉頭に上昇します。飲み込んだ(5)。幼虫は小腸で成虫に成長し(6)、他の器官に移動する可能性があります。糞便中に排出された卵(7)。


科学/医学:腸内寄生虫ペスト第三世界:健康:ほとんど認識されていない問題は、発展途上国で進歩するための障害と見なされています。

第三世界は多くの健康と経済の問題に直面していますが、第三世界の国々の将来の繁栄への重大な障害を表す、ほとんど認識されていない惨劇が1つあります。それは腸内寄生虫です。

寄生虫によって引き起こされる病気は、マラリアから先進国ではほとんど知られていない多くの病気に至るまで多様なグループであり、制御するためにさまざまな方法を必要とします。特別なカテゴリーは腸内寄生虫であり、比較的無害であると考えられていたため、最近まであまり注目されていませんでした。最も一般的な例は、フックワーム、回虫、鞭虫です。

最近の研究によると、これらのワームによる感染は、以前に信じられていたよりも、エネルギーと幸福を奪う上ではるかに大きな役割を果たしています。そして、研究は苦痛の薬物治療の増加に拍車をかけました、アプローチは非常に物議を醸すことが証明されました。

恐らく、飢饉とマラリアだけが、発展途上国における悲惨と経済的損失の主要な生産者として腸内寄生虫感染を上回っています。国際保健の専門家は、今日世界中で感染している個人の数は、おそらく50年前に感染した数と同じか、それを超える可能性があると推定しています。

彼らは、今日生きている50億人の少なくとも4分の1がワームを持っており、多くの場合、複数の種類であると言います。大多数は、栄養失調が病気や倦怠感の主な原因でもある発展途上国の同じ個人です。

「恐らく、重度の子供の栄養失調の全症例の半分にもなるでしょう。 。 。主に食物の不足によってではなく、腸内寄生虫、発熱、感染症、特に食欲を低下させ、エネルギーを燃焼させ、子供の体重を排出する感染症によって引き起こされます」と、エグゼクティブのジェームズP.グラントは宣言します。国連児童基金の事務局長。

専門家は、開発途上国における寄生虫病の問題は非常に深刻であるため、病気が制御されるまで、経済発展、人口管理、対外援助のいずれもこれらの国の繁栄を促進するのに十分ではないと警告します。

世界保健機関の寄生虫病の責任者であるアンドリュー・デイビス博士は、次のように述べています。個人とコミュニティの両方。」

前世紀以来、衛生設備、きれいな水、および個人の衛生状態が腸内寄生虫を制御する方法であることが知られています。主に難民の人口による感染のポケットを除いて、それが腸内寄生虫が米国で大きな問題ではない理由です。国際援助機関は今世紀のほとんどを、浄水、トイレ建設プロジェクト、健康教育プログラムに資金を提供することにより、第三世界における衛生状態と衛生状態の重要な役割に対する一般の認識を向上させるために努力してきました。

世界保健機関は現在、農村部と都市部のスラムに住む何億人もの人々に飲料水と衛生サービスを拡大するという10年にわたる推進力を終わらせています。利益が得られ、推進が続く一方で、ユニセフは、8億人が依然として安全な水供給にアクセスできず、13億人が適切な衛生サービスを欠いていると推定しています。

もう1つの問題は、トイレを使用して習慣を変えるように人々を説得することの難しさです。トイレは、閉じ込められ、維持するのが面倒だと考えられています。医療従事者がようやく住民に新しく設置されたピットラトリンを使用させることができたあるメキシコの村では、子供が座席の開口部から落ちたときに協力が突然終了しました。

抗ワーム薬の幅広い選択が以前から利用可能でしたが、発展途上国で働く医師はそれらを広範囲に使用することに消極的でした。彼らは、適切な衛生設備と良好な衛生状態がないため、個人がすぐに再感染するため、広範囲にわたる薬物治療が経済的に役に立たなくなると考えています。

しかし、最近、薬物治療に対する伝統的な態度が変化している可能性があるという兆候が見られますが、治療が衛生状態による予防への関心の低下につながる可能性があることを恐れる人々からの反対がないわけではありません。過去数年間の新しい研究では、コミュニティ内で重度に感染した子供を治療することは、コミュニティ全体に健康上の利益をもたらし、費用を正当化する可能性があることが示されています。

コーネル大学の国際栄養プログラムのディレクターであるマイケルC.レイサム博士によると、過去5年間の研究により、最も脆弱な年齢層である子供たちの感染による健康への影響が以前よりもはるかに深刻であることが明らかになっています。信じた。たとえば、回虫に感染した10億人のうち、約100万人が腸閉塞を起こし、その結果、年間5万人から10万人が死亡しています。

回虫、鉤虫、鞭虫はまた、貧血を引き起こしたり、栄養素の吸収を減らしたり、食物中のタンパク質から来るエネルギーを吸収したりすることで栄養失調の衰弱効果を高め、発育阻害や他の感染症に対する脆弱性の増加をもたらします。

ケニアで実施された最近の研究で、ケニア医学研究所とカナダのマクマスター大学のレイサムと他の研究者は、抗ワーム薬であるアルベンダゾールの単回投与で子供を治療すると、未治療の子供よりも成長率が非常に大幅に改善されることを示しました。この薬は、3種類すべてのワームのライフサイクルの各段階に対して有効であるため、価値があると見なされています。

ジョンズホプキンス公衆衛生学部のクライヴシフ博士は、研究で数千人の子供を治療し、良い結果を得るのは1つのことですが、国際機関にとっても、世界規模でそれを行うことは別のことです。 「それは倫理的に必要です」と彼は言いました、「しかし手頃な価格ではありません。」それにもかかわらず、米国疾病対策センターのピーターシャンツ博士によると、ケニアとモントセラトの研究の肯定的な発見を検証するためにCDCが独自のフィールド試験を計画するには、薬物アプローチへの関心が十分です。

腸内寄生虫PLAGUETHIRD WORLD HOOKWORM幼虫は人間の皮膚に浸透し(1)、血流に入り、心臓に運ばれ(2)、肺動脈を介して肺に到達し、肺胞に浸透して気管支に入り(3)、気管を上咽頭に上昇して飲み込まれます(4 )。成熟したワームは十二指腸と空腸で発生し、粘膜に噛み付いて血液を吸います(5)。受精卵は糞便中に排出されます(6)。鞭虫卵は汚染された食物と一緒に摂取され(1)、幼虫は卵を残して成虫の形に成長し(2)、成虫は盲腸と虫垂に移動し、そこで生きて繁殖します(3)。受精卵は糞便中に排出されます(4)。食物を摂取した卵(1)、幼虫は小腸に出現し(2)、腸壁を貫通して心臓に到達し(3)、肺動脈によって肺に到達し、肺胞を貫通して気管支に入り(4)、気管を喉頭に上昇します。飲み込んだ(5)。幼虫は小腸で成虫に成長し(6)、他の器官に移動する可能性があります。糞便中に排出された卵(7)。


科学/医学:腸内寄生虫ペスト第三世界:健康:ほとんど認識されていない問題は、発展途上国で進歩するための障害と見なされています。

第三世界は多くの健康と経済の問題に直面していますが、第三世界の国々の将来の繁栄への重大な障害を表す、ほとんど認識されていない惨劇が1つあります。それは腸内寄生虫です。

寄生虫によって引き起こされる病気は、マラリアから先進国ではほとんど知られていない多くの病気に至るまで多様なグループであり、制御するためにさまざまな方法を必要とします。特別なカテゴリーは腸内寄生虫であり、比較的無害であると考えられていたため、最近まであまり注目されていませんでした。最も一般的な例は、フックワーム、回虫、鞭虫です。

最近の研究によると、これらのワームによる感染は、以前に信じられていたよりも、エネルギーと幸福を奪う上ではるかに大きな役割を果たしています。そして、研究は苦痛の薬物治療の増加に拍車をかけました、アプローチは非常に物議を醸すことが証明されました。

恐らく、飢饉とマラリアだけが、発展途上国における悲惨と経済的損失の主要な生産者として腸内寄生虫感染を上回っています。国際保健の専門家は、今日世界中で感染している個人の数は、おそらく50年前に感染した数と同じか、それを超える可能性があると推定しています。

彼らは、今日生きている50億人の少なくとも4分の1がワームを持っており、多くの場合、複数の種類であると言います。大多数は、栄養失調が病気や倦怠感の主な原因でもある発展途上国の同じ個人です。

「恐らく、重度の子供の栄養失調の全症例の半分にもなるでしょう。 。 。主に食物の不足によってではなく、腸内寄生虫、発熱、感染症、特に食欲を低下させ、エネルギーを燃焼させ、子供の体重を排出する感染症によって引き起こされます」と、エグゼクティブのジェームズP.グラントは宣言します。国連児童基金の事務局長。

専門家は、開発途上国における寄生虫病の問題は非常に深刻であるため、病気が制御されるまで、経済発展、人口管理、対外援助のいずれもこれらの国の繁栄を促進するのに十分ではないと警告します。

世界保健機関の寄生虫病の責任者であるアンドリュー・デイビス博士は、次のように述べています。個人とコミュニティの両方。」

前世紀以来、衛生設備、きれいな水、および個人の衛生状態が腸内寄生虫を制御する方法であることが知られています。主に難民の人口による感染のポケットを除いて、それが腸内寄生虫が米国で大きな問題ではない理由です。国際援助機関は今世紀のほとんどを、浄水、トイレ建設プロジェクト、健康教育プログラムに資金を提供することにより、第三世界における衛生状態と衛生状態の重要な役割に対する一般の認識を向上させるために努力してきました。

世界保健機関は現在、農村部と都市部のスラムに住む何億人もの人々に飲料水と衛生サービスを拡大するという10年にわたる推進力を終わらせています。利益が得られ、推進が続く一方で、ユニセフは、8億人が依然として安全な水供給にアクセスできず、13億人が適切な衛生サービスを欠いていると推定しています。

もう1つの問題は、トイレを使用して習慣を変えるように人々を説得することの難しさです。トイレは、閉じ込められ、維持するのが面倒だと考えられています。医療従事者がようやく住民に新しく設置されたピットラトリンを使用させることができたあるメキシコの村では、子供が座席の開口部から落ちたときに協力が突然終了しました。

抗ワーム薬の幅広い選択が以前から利用可能でしたが、発展途上国で働く医師はそれらを広範囲に使用することに消極的でした。彼らは、適切な衛生設備と良好な衛生状態がないため、個人がすぐに再感染するため、広範囲にわたる薬物治療が経済的に役に立たなくなると考えています。

しかし、最近、薬物治療に対する伝統的な態度が変化している可能性があるという兆候が見られますが、治療が衛生状態による予防への関心の低下につながる可能性があることを恐れる人々からの反対がないわけではありません。過去数年間の新しい研究では、コミュニティ内で重度に感染した子供を治療することは、コミュニティ全体に健康上の利益をもたらし、費用を正当化する可能性があることが示されています。

コーネル大学の国際栄養プログラムのディレクターであるマイケルC.レイサム博士によると、過去5年間の研究により、最も脆弱な年齢層である子供たちの感染による健康への影響が以前よりもはるかに深刻であることが明らかになっています。信じた。たとえば、回虫に感染した10億人のうち、約100万人が腸閉塞を起こし、その結果、年間5万人から10万人が死亡しています。

回虫、鉤虫、鞭虫はまた、貧血を引き起こしたり、栄養素の吸収を減らしたり、食物中のタンパク質から来るエネルギーを吸収したりすることで栄養失調の衰弱効果を高め、発育阻害や他の感染症に対する脆弱性の増加をもたらします。

ケニアで実施された最近の研究で、ケニア医学研究所とカナダのマクマスター大学のレイサムと他の研究者は、抗ワーム薬であるアルベンダゾールの単回投与で子供を治療すると、未治療の子供よりも成長率が非常に大幅に改善されることを示しました。この薬は、3種類すべてのワームのライフサイクルの各段階に対して有効であるため、価値があると見なされています。

ジョンズホプキンス公衆衛生大学院のクライヴシフ博士は、研究で数千人の子供を治療し、良い結果を得るのは1つのことですが、国際機関にとっても、世界規模でそれを行うことは別のことです。 「それは倫理的に必要です」と彼は言いました、「しかし手頃な価格ではありません。」それにもかかわらず、米国疾病対策センターのピーターシャンツ博士によると、ケニアとモントセラトの研究の肯定的な発見を検証するためにCDCが独自のフィールド試験を計画するには、薬物アプローチへの関心が十分です。

腸内寄生虫PLAGUETHIRD WORLD HOOKWORM幼虫は人間の皮膚に浸透し(1)、血流に入り、心臓に運ばれ(2)、肺動脈を介して肺に到達し、肺胞に浸透して気管支に入り(3)、気管を上咽頭に上昇して飲み込まれます(4 )。成熟したワームは十二指腸と空腸で発生し、粘膜に噛み付いて血液を吸います(5)。受精卵は糞便中に排出されます(6)。鞭虫卵は汚染された食物と一緒に摂取され(1)、幼虫は卵を残して成虫の形に成長し(2)、成虫は盲腸と虫垂に移動し、そこで生きて繁殖します(3)。受精卵は糞便中に排出されます(4)。食物を摂取した卵(1)、幼虫は小腸に出現し(2)、腸壁を貫通して心臓に到達し(3)、肺動脈によって肺に到達し、肺胞を貫通して気管支に入り(4)、気管を喉頭に上昇します。飲み込んだ(5)。幼虫は小腸で成虫に成長し(6)、他の器官に移動する可能性があります。糞便中に排出された卵(7)。


科学/医学:腸内寄生虫ペスト第三世界:健康:ほとんど認識されていない問題は、発展途上国で進歩するための障害と見なされています。

第三世界は多くの健康と経済の問題に直面していますが、第三世界の国々の将来の繁栄への重大な障害を表す、ほとんど認識されていない惨劇が1つあります。それは腸内寄生虫です。

寄生虫によって引き起こされる病気は、マラリアから先進国ではほとんど知られていない多くの病気に至るまで多様なグループであり、制御するためにさまざまな方法を必要とします。特別なカテゴリーは腸内寄生虫であり、比較的無害であると考えられていたため、最近まであまり注目されていませんでした。最も一般的な例は、フックワーム、回虫、鞭虫です。

最近の研究によると、これらのワームによる感染は、以前に信じられていたよりも、エネルギーと幸福を奪う上ではるかに大きな役割を果たしています。そして、研究は苦痛の薬物治療の増加に拍車をかけました、アプローチは非常に物議を醸すことが証明されました。

恐らく、飢饉とマラリアだけが、発展途上国における悲惨と経済的損失の主要な生産者として腸内寄生虫感染を上回っています。国際保健の専門家は、今日世界中で感染している個人の数は、おそらく50年前に感染した数と同じか、それを超える可能性があると推定しています。

彼らは、今日生きている50億人の少なくとも4分の1がワームを持っており、多くの場合、複数の種類であると言います。大多数は、栄養失調が病気や倦怠感の主な原因でもある発展途上国の同じ個人です。

「恐らく、重度の子供の栄養失調の全症例の半分にもなるでしょう。 。 。主に食物の不足によってではなく、腸内寄生虫、発熱、感染症、特に食欲を低下させ、エネルギーを燃焼させ、子供の体重を排出する感染症によって引き起こされます」と、エグゼクティブのジェームズP.グラントは宣言します。国連児童基金の事務局長。

専門家は、開発途上国における寄生虫病の問題は非常に深刻であるため、病気が制御されるまで、経済発展、人口管理、対外援助のいずれもこれらの国の繁栄を促進するのに十分ではないと警告します。

世界保健機関の寄生虫病の責任者であるアンドリュー・デイビス博士は、次のように述べています。個人とコミュニティの両方。」

前世紀以来、衛生設備、きれいな水、および個人の衛生状態が腸内寄生虫を制御する方法であることが知られています。主に難民の人口による感染のポケットを除いて、それが腸内寄生虫が米国で大きな問題ではない理由です。国際援助機関は今世紀のほとんどを、浄水、トイレ建設プロジェクト、健康教育プログラムに資金を提供することにより、第三世界における衛生状態と衛生状態の重要な役割に対する一般の認識を向上させるために努力してきました。

世界保健機関は現在、農村部と都市部のスラムに住む何億人もの人々に飲料水と衛生サービスを拡大するという10年にわたる推進力を終わらせています。利益が得られ、推進は続くものの、ユニセフは、8億人が依然として安全な水供給にアクセスできず、13億人が適切な衛生サービスを欠いていると推定しています。

もう1つの問題は、トイレを使用して習慣を変えるように人々を説得することの難しさです。トイレは、閉じ込められ、維持するのが面倒だと考えられています。医療従事者がようやく住民に新しく設置されたピットラトリンを使用させることができたあるメキシコの村では、子供が座席の開口部から落ちたときに協力が突然終了しました。

抗ワーム薬の幅広い選択が以前から利用可能でしたが、発展途上国で働く医師はそれらを広範囲に使用することに消極的でした。彼らは、適切な衛生設備と良好な衛生状態がないため、個人がすぐに再感染するため、広範囲にわたる薬物治療が経済的に役に立たなくなると考えています。

しかし、最近、薬物治療に対する伝統的な態度が変化している可能性があるという兆候が見られますが、治療が衛生状態による予防への関心の低下につながる可能性があることを恐れる人々からの反対がないわけではありません。過去数年間の新しい研究によると、コミュニティ内で重度に感染した子供を治療することは、コミュニティ全体に健康上の利益をもたらし、費用を正当化する可能性があります。

コーネル大学の国際栄養プログラムのディレクターであるマイケルC.レイサム博士によると、過去5年間の研究により、最も脆弱な年齢層である子供たちの感染による健康への影響が以前よりもはるかに深刻であることが明らかになっています。信じた。たとえば、回虫に感染した10億人のうち、約100万人が腸閉塞を起こし、その結果、年間5万人から10万人が死亡しています。

回虫、鉤虫、鞭虫はまた、貧血を引き起こしたり、栄養素の吸収を減らしたり、食物中のタンパク質から来るエネルギーを吸収したりすることで栄養失調の衰弱効果を高め、発育阻害や他の感染症に対する脆弱性の増加をもたらします。

ケニアで実施された最近の研究で、レイサムとケニア医学研究所およびカナダのマクマスター大学の他の研究者は、抗ワーム薬であるアルベンダゾールの単回投与で子供を治療すると、未治療の子供よりも成長率が非常に大幅に改善されることを示しました。この薬は、3種類すべてのワームのライフサイクルの各段階に対して有効であるため、価値があると見なされています。

ジョンズホプキンス公衆衛生学部のクライヴシフ博士は、研究で数千人の子供を治療し、良い結果を得るのは1つのことですが、国際機関にとっても、世界規模でそれを行うことは別のことです。 「それは倫理的に必要です」と彼は言いました、「しかし手頃な価格ではありません。」それにもかかわらず、米国疾病対策センターのピーターシャンツ博士によると、ケニアとモントセラトの研究の肯定的な発見を検証するためにCDCが独自のフィールド試験を計画するには、薬物アプローチへの関心が十分です。

腸内寄生虫PLAGUETHIRD WORLD HOOKWORM幼虫は人間の皮膚に浸透し(1)、血流に入り、心臓に運ばれ(2)、肺動脈を介して肺に到達し、肺胞に浸透して気管支に入り(3)、気管を上咽頭に上昇して飲み込まれます(4 )。成熟したワームは十二指腸と空腸で発生し、粘膜に噛み付いて血液を吸います(5)。受精卵は糞便中に排出されます(6)。鞭虫卵は汚染された食物と一緒に摂取され(1)、幼虫は卵を残して成虫の形に成長し(2)、成虫は盲腸と虫垂に移動し、そこで生きて繁殖します(3)。受精卵は糞便中に排出されます(4)。 ROUNDWORM Eggs ingested with food (1), larvae emerge in small intestine (2), penetrate gut wall and pass to heart (3), reach lung by pulmonary artery, penetrate alveoli and enter bronchi (4), ascend trachea to larynx and are swallowed (5). Larvae develop into adult worms in small intestine (6) and may pass to other organs. Eggs expelled in feces (7).


SCIENCE / MEDICINE : Intestinal Parasites Plague Third World : Health: A little-recognized problem is considered a roadblock to progress in developing nations.

The Third World is faced with numerous health and economic problems, but there is one little-recognized scourge that represents a significant roadblock to future prosperity in Third World countries: intestinal worms.

Diseases caused by parasites are a diverse group ranging from malaria to a number of illnesses that are largely unknown in developed countries and which require a variety of methods to control. A special category are the intestinal parasites, which until recently have received less attention because they have been considered to be relatively innocuous. The most common examples are hookworm, roundworm and whipworm.

Recent studies indicate that infections by these worms play a much larger role in sapping energy and well-being than previously believed. And the studies have spurred an increase in drug treatment of the afflictions, an approach that has proved highly controversial.

Perhaps only famine and malaria exceed intestinal worm infections as the leading producers of misery and economic loss in the developing world. International health experts estimate that the number of individuals infected today worldwide probably equals, or may even exceed, the number infected 50 years ago.

They say at least one-fourth of the 5 billion people living today have worms, often more than one kind. The vast majority are the same individuals in the developing world for whom malnutrition is also a primary cause of illness and lethargy.

“Perhaps as many as half of all cases of severe child malnutrition . 。 。 are precipitated not primarily by the lack of food but by intestinal parasites, fever and infection--especially diarrheal infection--which depresses the appetite, burns the energy and drains away the body weight of the child,” declares James P. Grant, executive director of the United Nations Children’s Fund.

Experts warn that the problem of parasitic diseases in developing countries is so serious that neither economic development, population control nor foreign aid will suffice to foster prosperity in those countries until the diseases are controlled.

Dr. Andrew Davis, director of parasitic diseases for the World Health Organization, says: “It is unrealistic to expect rapid advancement in Third World countries, which, in addition to their economic misfortunes, are totally overburdened with crushing disease problems that diminish output of both individuals and communities.”

It has been known since the last century that sanitary facilities, clean water and personal hygiene are the ways to control intestinal worms. Except for pockets of infection due largely to refugee populations, that is why intestinal worms are not a major problem in the United States. International aid agencies have striven most of this century to improve sanitation and public awareness of sanitation’s essential role in the Third World by funding water purification and latrine-building projects and health education programs.

The World Health Organization currently is winding up a decade-long thrust to extend drinking water and sanitation services to hundreds of millions of people living in rural and urban slums. While gains have been made and the push will continue, UNICEF estimates that 800 million people still will be without access to safe water supplies and 1.3 billion will lack adequate sanitation services.

Another problem is the difficulty of persuading the people to change eons of habit by using latrines, which they view as confining and a nuisance to maintain. In one Mexican village where health workers finally managed to get the residents to use newly installed pit latrines, the cooperation ended abruptly when a child fell through the seat opening.

Although a wide selection of anti-worm drugs have been available for some time, physicians working in the developing world have been reluctant to use them on a wide scale. They believe that the absence of adequate sanitation facilities and good hygiene make widespread drug treatment economically useless because individuals soon become reinfected.

Recently, however, there have been signs that the traditional attitude toward drug treatment may be changing--but not without opposition from those who fear that treatment may lead to diminished attention to prevention through sanitation. In the last several years new studies have indicated that treating heavily infected children within a community has health benefits to the whole community that may justify the cost--even though the youngsters subsequently do become reinfected.

According to Dr. Michael C. Latham, director of the international nutrition program at Cornell University, studies over the last five years are revealing that the health consequences of infection in children--the most vulnerable age group--are far more serious than previously believed. For example, of the 1 billion people infected with roundworm, about a million acquire intestinal obstructions that result in between 50,000 and 100,000 deaths a year, according to Latham.

Roundworms, hookworms and whipworms also enhance the debilitating effects of malnutrition by causing anemia or decreasing absorption of nutrients or sapping the energy that comes from the protein in food, resulting in stunted growth and increased vulnerability to other infections.

In a recent study conducted in Kenya, Latham and other researchers from the Kenya Medical Research Institute and McMaster University in Canada showed that treating children with a single dose of an anti-worm drug, albendazole, brought highly significant improvements in growth rates over untreated children. The drug is seen as valuable because it is effective against each of the life-cycle stages of all three kinds of worms.

Treating a few thousand children in a study and getting good results is one thing, said Dr. Clive Shiff of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, but even for international agencies it’s another thing to do it on a global scale. “It’s ethically needed,” he said, “but not affordable.” Nevertheless, according to Dr. Peter Schantz of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, interest in the drug approach is sufficient for CDC to be planning its own field trials to verify the positive findings of the Kenya and Montserrat studies.

INTESTINAL PARASITES PLAGUE THIRD WORLD HOOKWORM Larvae penetrate human skin (1), enter blood stream and are carried to heart (2), reach lung via pulmonary artery, penetrate alveoli and enter bronchi (3), ascend trachea to pharynx and are swallowed (4). Mature worms develop in duodenum and jejunum, bite into mucosa and suck blood (5). Fertilized ova discharged in feces (6). WHIPWORM Eggs are ingested with contaminated food (1), larvae leave egg and develop into adult forms (2), adult worms migrate to cecum and appendix where they live and reproduce (3). Fertilized eggs expelled in feces (4). ROUNDWORM Eggs ingested with food (1), larvae emerge in small intestine (2), penetrate gut wall and pass to heart (3), reach lung by pulmonary artery, penetrate alveoli and enter bronchi (4), ascend trachea to larynx and are swallowed (5). Larvae develop into adult worms in small intestine (6) and may pass to other organs. Eggs expelled in feces (7).


SCIENCE / MEDICINE : Intestinal Parasites Plague Third World : Health: A little-recognized problem is considered a roadblock to progress in developing nations.

The Third World is faced with numerous health and economic problems, but there is one little-recognized scourge that represents a significant roadblock to future prosperity in Third World countries: intestinal worms.

Diseases caused by parasites are a diverse group ranging from malaria to a number of illnesses that are largely unknown in developed countries and which require a variety of methods to control. A special category are the intestinal parasites, which until recently have received less attention because they have been considered to be relatively innocuous. The most common examples are hookworm, roundworm and whipworm.

Recent studies indicate that infections by these worms play a much larger role in sapping energy and well-being than previously believed. And the studies have spurred an increase in drug treatment of the afflictions, an approach that has proved highly controversial.

Perhaps only famine and malaria exceed intestinal worm infections as the leading producers of misery and economic loss in the developing world. International health experts estimate that the number of individuals infected today worldwide probably equals, or may even exceed, the number infected 50 years ago.

They say at least one-fourth of the 5 billion people living today have worms, often more than one kind. The vast majority are the same individuals in the developing world for whom malnutrition is also a primary cause of illness and lethargy.

“Perhaps as many as half of all cases of severe child malnutrition . 。 。 are precipitated not primarily by the lack of food but by intestinal parasites, fever and infection--especially diarrheal infection--which depresses the appetite, burns the energy and drains away the body weight of the child,” declares James P. Grant, executive director of the United Nations Children’s Fund.

Experts warn that the problem of parasitic diseases in developing countries is so serious that neither economic development, population control nor foreign aid will suffice to foster prosperity in those countries until the diseases are controlled.

Dr. Andrew Davis, director of parasitic diseases for the World Health Organization, says: “It is unrealistic to expect rapid advancement in Third World countries, which, in addition to their economic misfortunes, are totally overburdened with crushing disease problems that diminish output of both individuals and communities.”

It has been known since the last century that sanitary facilities, clean water and personal hygiene are the ways to control intestinal worms. Except for pockets of infection due largely to refugee populations, that is why intestinal worms are not a major problem in the United States. International aid agencies have striven most of this century to improve sanitation and public awareness of sanitation’s essential role in the Third World by funding water purification and latrine-building projects and health education programs.

The World Health Organization currently is winding up a decade-long thrust to extend drinking water and sanitation services to hundreds of millions of people living in rural and urban slums. While gains have been made and the push will continue, UNICEF estimates that 800 million people still will be without access to safe water supplies and 1.3 billion will lack adequate sanitation services.

Another problem is the difficulty of persuading the people to change eons of habit by using latrines, which they view as confining and a nuisance to maintain. In one Mexican village where health workers finally managed to get the residents to use newly installed pit latrines, the cooperation ended abruptly when a child fell through the seat opening.

Although a wide selection of anti-worm drugs have been available for some time, physicians working in the developing world have been reluctant to use them on a wide scale. They believe that the absence of adequate sanitation facilities and good hygiene make widespread drug treatment economically useless because individuals soon become reinfected.

Recently, however, there have been signs that the traditional attitude toward drug treatment may be changing--but not without opposition from those who fear that treatment may lead to diminished attention to prevention through sanitation. In the last several years new studies have indicated that treating heavily infected children within a community has health benefits to the whole community that may justify the cost--even though the youngsters subsequently do become reinfected.

According to Dr. Michael C. Latham, director of the international nutrition program at Cornell University, studies over the last five years are revealing that the health consequences of infection in children--the most vulnerable age group--are far more serious than previously believed. For example, of the 1 billion people infected with roundworm, about a million acquire intestinal obstructions that result in between 50,000 and 100,000 deaths a year, according to Latham.

Roundworms, hookworms and whipworms also enhance the debilitating effects of malnutrition by causing anemia or decreasing absorption of nutrients or sapping the energy that comes from the protein in food, resulting in stunted growth and increased vulnerability to other infections.

In a recent study conducted in Kenya, Latham and other researchers from the Kenya Medical Research Institute and McMaster University in Canada showed that treating children with a single dose of an anti-worm drug, albendazole, brought highly significant improvements in growth rates over untreated children. The drug is seen as valuable because it is effective against each of the life-cycle stages of all three kinds of worms.

Treating a few thousand children in a study and getting good results is one thing, said Dr. Clive Shiff of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, but even for international agencies it’s another thing to do it on a global scale. “It’s ethically needed,” he said, “but not affordable.” Nevertheless, according to Dr. Peter Schantz of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, interest in the drug approach is sufficient for CDC to be planning its own field trials to verify the positive findings of the Kenya and Montserrat studies.

INTESTINAL PARASITES PLAGUE THIRD WORLD HOOKWORM Larvae penetrate human skin (1), enter blood stream and are carried to heart (2), reach lung via pulmonary artery, penetrate alveoli and enter bronchi (3), ascend trachea to pharynx and are swallowed (4). Mature worms develop in duodenum and jejunum, bite into mucosa and suck blood (5). Fertilized ova discharged in feces (6). WHIPWORM Eggs are ingested with contaminated food (1), larvae leave egg and develop into adult forms (2), adult worms migrate to cecum and appendix where they live and reproduce (3). Fertilized eggs expelled in feces (4). ROUNDWORM Eggs ingested with food (1), larvae emerge in small intestine (2), penetrate gut wall and pass to heart (3), reach lung by pulmonary artery, penetrate alveoli and enter bronchi (4), ascend trachea to larynx and are swallowed (5). Larvae develop into adult worms in small intestine (6) and may pass to other organs. Eggs expelled in feces (7).


SCIENCE / MEDICINE : Intestinal Parasites Plague Third World : Health: A little-recognized problem is considered a roadblock to progress in developing nations.

The Third World is faced with numerous health and economic problems, but there is one little-recognized scourge that represents a significant roadblock to future prosperity in Third World countries: intestinal worms.

Diseases caused by parasites are a diverse group ranging from malaria to a number of illnesses that are largely unknown in developed countries and which require a variety of methods to control. A special category are the intestinal parasites, which until recently have received less attention because they have been considered to be relatively innocuous. The most common examples are hookworm, roundworm and whipworm.

Recent studies indicate that infections by these worms play a much larger role in sapping energy and well-being than previously believed. And the studies have spurred an increase in drug treatment of the afflictions, an approach that has proved highly controversial.

Perhaps only famine and malaria exceed intestinal worm infections as the leading producers of misery and economic loss in the developing world. International health experts estimate that the number of individuals infected today worldwide probably equals, or may even exceed, the number infected 50 years ago.

They say at least one-fourth of the 5 billion people living today have worms, often more than one kind. The vast majority are the same individuals in the developing world for whom malnutrition is also a primary cause of illness and lethargy.

“Perhaps as many as half of all cases of severe child malnutrition . 。 。 are precipitated not primarily by the lack of food but by intestinal parasites, fever and infection--especially diarrheal infection--which depresses the appetite, burns the energy and drains away the body weight of the child,” declares James P. Grant, executive director of the United Nations Children’s Fund.

Experts warn that the problem of parasitic diseases in developing countries is so serious that neither economic development, population control nor foreign aid will suffice to foster prosperity in those countries until the diseases are controlled.

Dr. Andrew Davis, director of parasitic diseases for the World Health Organization, says: “It is unrealistic to expect rapid advancement in Third World countries, which, in addition to their economic misfortunes, are totally overburdened with crushing disease problems that diminish output of both individuals and communities.”

It has been known since the last century that sanitary facilities, clean water and personal hygiene are the ways to control intestinal worms. Except for pockets of infection due largely to refugee populations, that is why intestinal worms are not a major problem in the United States. International aid agencies have striven most of this century to improve sanitation and public awareness of sanitation’s essential role in the Third World by funding water purification and latrine-building projects and health education programs.

The World Health Organization currently is winding up a decade-long thrust to extend drinking water and sanitation services to hundreds of millions of people living in rural and urban slums. While gains have been made and the push will continue, UNICEF estimates that 800 million people still will be without access to safe water supplies and 1.3 billion will lack adequate sanitation services.

Another problem is the difficulty of persuading the people to change eons of habit by using latrines, which they view as confining and a nuisance to maintain. In one Mexican village where health workers finally managed to get the residents to use newly installed pit latrines, the cooperation ended abruptly when a child fell through the seat opening.

Although a wide selection of anti-worm drugs have been available for some time, physicians working in the developing world have been reluctant to use them on a wide scale. They believe that the absence of adequate sanitation facilities and good hygiene make widespread drug treatment economically useless because individuals soon become reinfected.

Recently, however, there have been signs that the traditional attitude toward drug treatment may be changing--but not without opposition from those who fear that treatment may lead to diminished attention to prevention through sanitation. In the last several years new studies have indicated that treating heavily infected children within a community has health benefits to the whole community that may justify the cost--even though the youngsters subsequently do become reinfected.

According to Dr. Michael C. Latham, director of the international nutrition program at Cornell University, studies over the last five years are revealing that the health consequences of infection in children--the most vulnerable age group--are far more serious than previously believed. For example, of the 1 billion people infected with roundworm, about a million acquire intestinal obstructions that result in between 50,000 and 100,000 deaths a year, according to Latham.

Roundworms, hookworms and whipworms also enhance the debilitating effects of malnutrition by causing anemia or decreasing absorption of nutrients or sapping the energy that comes from the protein in food, resulting in stunted growth and increased vulnerability to other infections.

In a recent study conducted in Kenya, Latham and other researchers from the Kenya Medical Research Institute and McMaster University in Canada showed that treating children with a single dose of an anti-worm drug, albendazole, brought highly significant improvements in growth rates over untreated children. The drug is seen as valuable because it is effective against each of the life-cycle stages of all three kinds of worms.

Treating a few thousand children in a study and getting good results is one thing, said Dr. Clive Shiff of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, but even for international agencies it’s another thing to do it on a global scale. “It’s ethically needed,” he said, “but not affordable.” Nevertheless, according to Dr. Peter Schantz of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, interest in the drug approach is sufficient for CDC to be planning its own field trials to verify the positive findings of the Kenya and Montserrat studies.

INTESTINAL PARASITES PLAGUE THIRD WORLD HOOKWORM Larvae penetrate human skin (1), enter blood stream and are carried to heart (2), reach lung via pulmonary artery, penetrate alveoli and enter bronchi (3), ascend trachea to pharynx and are swallowed (4). Mature worms develop in duodenum and jejunum, bite into mucosa and suck blood (5). Fertilized ova discharged in feces (6). WHIPWORM Eggs are ingested with contaminated food (1), larvae leave egg and develop into adult forms (2), adult worms migrate to cecum and appendix where they live and reproduce (3). Fertilized eggs expelled in feces (4). ROUNDWORM Eggs ingested with food (1), larvae emerge in small intestine (2), penetrate gut wall and pass to heart (3), reach lung by pulmonary artery, penetrate alveoli and enter bronchi (4), ascend trachea to larynx and are swallowed (5). Larvae develop into adult worms in small intestine (6) and may pass to other organs. Eggs expelled in feces (7).


SCIENCE / MEDICINE : Intestinal Parasites Plague Third World : Health: A little-recognized problem is considered a roadblock to progress in developing nations.

The Third World is faced with numerous health and economic problems, but there is one little-recognized scourge that represents a significant roadblock to future prosperity in Third World countries: intestinal worms.

Diseases caused by parasites are a diverse group ranging from malaria to a number of illnesses that are largely unknown in developed countries and which require a variety of methods to control. A special category are the intestinal parasites, which until recently have received less attention because they have been considered to be relatively innocuous. The most common examples are hookworm, roundworm and whipworm.

Recent studies indicate that infections by these worms play a much larger role in sapping energy and well-being than previously believed. And the studies have spurred an increase in drug treatment of the afflictions, an approach that has proved highly controversial.

Perhaps only famine and malaria exceed intestinal worm infections as the leading producers of misery and economic loss in the developing world. International health experts estimate that the number of individuals infected today worldwide probably equals, or may even exceed, the number infected 50 years ago.

They say at least one-fourth of the 5 billion people living today have worms, often more than one kind. The vast majority are the same individuals in the developing world for whom malnutrition is also a primary cause of illness and lethargy.

“Perhaps as many as half of all cases of severe child malnutrition . 。 。 are precipitated not primarily by the lack of food but by intestinal parasites, fever and infection--especially diarrheal infection--which depresses the appetite, burns the energy and drains away the body weight of the child,” declares James P. Grant, executive director of the United Nations Children’s Fund.

Experts warn that the problem of parasitic diseases in developing countries is so serious that neither economic development, population control nor foreign aid will suffice to foster prosperity in those countries until the diseases are controlled.

Dr. Andrew Davis, director of parasitic diseases for the World Health Organization, says: “It is unrealistic to expect rapid advancement in Third World countries, which, in addition to their economic misfortunes, are totally overburdened with crushing disease problems that diminish output of both individuals and communities.”

It has been known since the last century that sanitary facilities, clean water and personal hygiene are the ways to control intestinal worms. Except for pockets of infection due largely to refugee populations, that is why intestinal worms are not a major problem in the United States. International aid agencies have striven most of this century to improve sanitation and public awareness of sanitation’s essential role in the Third World by funding water purification and latrine-building projects and health education programs.

The World Health Organization currently is winding up a decade-long thrust to extend drinking water and sanitation services to hundreds of millions of people living in rural and urban slums. While gains have been made and the push will continue, UNICEF estimates that 800 million people still will be without access to safe water supplies and 1.3 billion will lack adequate sanitation services.

Another problem is the difficulty of persuading the people to change eons of habit by using latrines, which they view as confining and a nuisance to maintain. In one Mexican village where health workers finally managed to get the residents to use newly installed pit latrines, the cooperation ended abruptly when a child fell through the seat opening.

Although a wide selection of anti-worm drugs have been available for some time, physicians working in the developing world have been reluctant to use them on a wide scale. They believe that the absence of adequate sanitation facilities and good hygiene make widespread drug treatment economically useless because individuals soon become reinfected.

Recently, however, there have been signs that the traditional attitude toward drug treatment may be changing--but not without opposition from those who fear that treatment may lead to diminished attention to prevention through sanitation. In the last several years new studies have indicated that treating heavily infected children within a community has health benefits to the whole community that may justify the cost--even though the youngsters subsequently do become reinfected.

According to Dr. Michael C. Latham, director of the international nutrition program at Cornell University, studies over the last five years are revealing that the health consequences of infection in children--the most vulnerable age group--are far more serious than previously believed. For example, of the 1 billion people infected with roundworm, about a million acquire intestinal obstructions that result in between 50,000 and 100,000 deaths a year, according to Latham.

Roundworms, hookworms and whipworms also enhance the debilitating effects of malnutrition by causing anemia or decreasing absorption of nutrients or sapping the energy that comes from the protein in food, resulting in stunted growth and increased vulnerability to other infections.

In a recent study conducted in Kenya, Latham and other researchers from the Kenya Medical Research Institute and McMaster University in Canada showed that treating children with a single dose of an anti-worm drug, albendazole, brought highly significant improvements in growth rates over untreated children. The drug is seen as valuable because it is effective against each of the life-cycle stages of all three kinds of worms.

Treating a few thousand children in a study and getting good results is one thing, said Dr. Clive Shiff of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, but even for international agencies it’s another thing to do it on a global scale. “It’s ethically needed,” he said, “but not affordable.” Nevertheless, according to Dr. Peter Schantz of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, interest in the drug approach is sufficient for CDC to be planning its own field trials to verify the positive findings of the Kenya and Montserrat studies.

INTESTINAL PARASITES PLAGUE THIRD WORLD HOOKWORM Larvae penetrate human skin (1), enter blood stream and are carried to heart (2), reach lung via pulmonary artery, penetrate alveoli and enter bronchi (3), ascend trachea to pharynx and are swallowed (4). Mature worms develop in duodenum and jejunum, bite into mucosa and suck blood (5). Fertilized ova discharged in feces (6). WHIPWORM Eggs are ingested with contaminated food (1), larvae leave egg and develop into adult forms (2), adult worms migrate to cecum and appendix where they live and reproduce (3). Fertilized eggs expelled in feces (4). ROUNDWORM Eggs ingested with food (1), larvae emerge in small intestine (2), penetrate gut wall and pass to heart (3), reach lung by pulmonary artery, penetrate alveoli and enter bronchi (4), ascend trachea to larynx and are swallowed (5). Larvae develop into adult worms in small intestine (6) and may pass to other organs. Eggs expelled in feces (7).


SCIENCE / MEDICINE : Intestinal Parasites Plague Third World : Health: A little-recognized problem is considered a roadblock to progress in developing nations.

The Third World is faced with numerous health and economic problems, but there is one little-recognized scourge that represents a significant roadblock to future prosperity in Third World countries: intestinal worms.

Diseases caused by parasites are a diverse group ranging from malaria to a number of illnesses that are largely unknown in developed countries and which require a variety of methods to control. A special category are the intestinal parasites, which until recently have received less attention because they have been considered to be relatively innocuous. The most common examples are hookworm, roundworm and whipworm.

Recent studies indicate that infections by these worms play a much larger role in sapping energy and well-being than previously believed. And the studies have spurred an increase in drug treatment of the afflictions, an approach that has proved highly controversial.

Perhaps only famine and malaria exceed intestinal worm infections as the leading producers of misery and economic loss in the developing world. International health experts estimate that the number of individuals infected today worldwide probably equals, or may even exceed, the number infected 50 years ago.

They say at least one-fourth of the 5 billion people living today have worms, often more than one kind. The vast majority are the same individuals in the developing world for whom malnutrition is also a primary cause of illness and lethargy.

“Perhaps as many as half of all cases of severe child malnutrition . 。 。 are precipitated not primarily by the lack of food but by intestinal parasites, fever and infection--especially diarrheal infection--which depresses the appetite, burns the energy and drains away the body weight of the child,” declares James P. Grant, executive director of the United Nations Children’s Fund.

Experts warn that the problem of parasitic diseases in developing countries is so serious that neither economic development, population control nor foreign aid will suffice to foster prosperity in those countries until the diseases are controlled.

Dr. Andrew Davis, director of parasitic diseases for the World Health Organization, says: “It is unrealistic to expect rapid advancement in Third World countries, which, in addition to their economic misfortunes, are totally overburdened with crushing disease problems that diminish output of both individuals and communities.”

It has been known since the last century that sanitary facilities, clean water and personal hygiene are the ways to control intestinal worms. Except for pockets of infection due largely to refugee populations, that is why intestinal worms are not a major problem in the United States. International aid agencies have striven most of this century to improve sanitation and public awareness of sanitation’s essential role in the Third World by funding water purification and latrine-building projects and health education programs.

The World Health Organization currently is winding up a decade-long thrust to extend drinking water and sanitation services to hundreds of millions of people living in rural and urban slums. While gains have been made and the push will continue, UNICEF estimates that 800 million people still will be without access to safe water supplies and 1.3 billion will lack adequate sanitation services.

Another problem is the difficulty of persuading the people to change eons of habit by using latrines, which they view as confining and a nuisance to maintain. In one Mexican village where health workers finally managed to get the residents to use newly installed pit latrines, the cooperation ended abruptly when a child fell through the seat opening.

Although a wide selection of anti-worm drugs have been available for some time, physicians working in the developing world have been reluctant to use them on a wide scale. They believe that the absence of adequate sanitation facilities and good hygiene make widespread drug treatment economically useless because individuals soon become reinfected.

Recently, however, there have been signs that the traditional attitude toward drug treatment may be changing--but not without opposition from those who fear that treatment may lead to diminished attention to prevention through sanitation. In the last several years new studies have indicated that treating heavily infected children within a community has health benefits to the whole community that may justify the cost--even though the youngsters subsequently do become reinfected.

According to Dr. Michael C. Latham, director of the international nutrition program at Cornell University, studies over the last five years are revealing that the health consequences of infection in children--the most vulnerable age group--are far more serious than previously believed. For example, of the 1 billion people infected with roundworm, about a million acquire intestinal obstructions that result in between 50,000 and 100,000 deaths a year, according to Latham.

Roundworms, hookworms and whipworms also enhance the debilitating effects of malnutrition by causing anemia or decreasing absorption of nutrients or sapping the energy that comes from the protein in food, resulting in stunted growth and increased vulnerability to other infections.

In a recent study conducted in Kenya, Latham and other researchers from the Kenya Medical Research Institute and McMaster University in Canada showed that treating children with a single dose of an anti-worm drug, albendazole, brought highly significant improvements in growth rates over untreated children. The drug is seen as valuable because it is effective against each of the life-cycle stages of all three kinds of worms.

Treating a few thousand children in a study and getting good results is one thing, said Dr. Clive Shiff of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, but even for international agencies it’s another thing to do it on a global scale. “It’s ethically needed,” he said, “but not affordable.” Nevertheless, according to Dr. Peter Schantz of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, interest in the drug approach is sufficient for CDC to be planning its own field trials to verify the positive findings of the Kenya and Montserrat studies.

INTESTINAL PARASITES PLAGUE THIRD WORLD HOOKWORM Larvae penetrate human skin (1), enter blood stream and are carried to heart (2), reach lung via pulmonary artery, penetrate alveoli and enter bronchi (3), ascend trachea to pharynx and are swallowed (4). Mature worms develop in duodenum and jejunum, bite into mucosa and suck blood (5). Fertilized ova discharged in feces (6). WHIPWORM Eggs are ingested with contaminated food (1), larvae leave egg and develop into adult forms (2), adult worms migrate to cecum and appendix where they live and reproduce (3). Fertilized eggs expelled in feces (4). ROUNDWORM Eggs ingested with food (1), larvae emerge in small intestine (2), penetrate gut wall and pass to heart (3), reach lung by pulmonary artery, penetrate alveoli and enter bronchi (4), ascend trachea to larynx and are swallowed (5). Larvae develop into adult worms in small intestine (6) and may pass to other organs. Eggs expelled in feces (7).


SCIENCE / MEDICINE : Intestinal Parasites Plague Third World : Health: A little-recognized problem is considered a roadblock to progress in developing nations.

The Third World is faced with numerous health and economic problems, but there is one little-recognized scourge that represents a significant roadblock to future prosperity in Third World countries: intestinal worms.

Diseases caused by parasites are a diverse group ranging from malaria to a number of illnesses that are largely unknown in developed countries and which require a variety of methods to control. A special category are the intestinal parasites, which until recently have received less attention because they have been considered to be relatively innocuous. The most common examples are hookworm, roundworm and whipworm.

Recent studies indicate that infections by these worms play a much larger role in sapping energy and well-being than previously believed. And the studies have spurred an increase in drug treatment of the afflictions, an approach that has proved highly controversial.

Perhaps only famine and malaria exceed intestinal worm infections as the leading producers of misery and economic loss in the developing world. International health experts estimate that the number of individuals infected today worldwide probably equals, or may even exceed, the number infected 50 years ago.

They say at least one-fourth of the 5 billion people living today have worms, often more than one kind. The vast majority are the same individuals in the developing world for whom malnutrition is also a primary cause of illness and lethargy.

“Perhaps as many as half of all cases of severe child malnutrition . 。 。 are precipitated not primarily by the lack of food but by intestinal parasites, fever and infection--especially diarrheal infection--which depresses the appetite, burns the energy and drains away the body weight of the child,” declares James P. Grant, executive director of the United Nations Children’s Fund.

Experts warn that the problem of parasitic diseases in developing countries is so serious that neither economic development, population control nor foreign aid will suffice to foster prosperity in those countries until the diseases are controlled.

Dr. Andrew Davis, director of parasitic diseases for the World Health Organization, says: “It is unrealistic to expect rapid advancement in Third World countries, which, in addition to their economic misfortunes, are totally overburdened with crushing disease problems that diminish output of both individuals and communities.”

It has been known since the last century that sanitary facilities, clean water and personal hygiene are the ways to control intestinal worms. Except for pockets of infection due largely to refugee populations, that is why intestinal worms are not a major problem in the United States. International aid agencies have striven most of this century to improve sanitation and public awareness of sanitation’s essential role in the Third World by funding water purification and latrine-building projects and health education programs.

The World Health Organization currently is winding up a decade-long thrust to extend drinking water and sanitation services to hundreds of millions of people living in rural and urban slums. While gains have been made and the push will continue, UNICEF estimates that 800 million people still will be without access to safe water supplies and 1.3 billion will lack adequate sanitation services.

Another problem is the difficulty of persuading the people to change eons of habit by using latrines, which they view as confining and a nuisance to maintain. In one Mexican village where health workers finally managed to get the residents to use newly installed pit latrines, the cooperation ended abruptly when a child fell through the seat opening.

Although a wide selection of anti-worm drugs have been available for some time, physicians working in the developing world have been reluctant to use them on a wide scale. They believe that the absence of adequate sanitation facilities and good hygiene make widespread drug treatment economically useless because individuals soon become reinfected.

Recently, however, there have been signs that the traditional attitude toward drug treatment may be changing--but not without opposition from those who fear that treatment may lead to diminished attention to prevention through sanitation. In the last several years new studies have indicated that treating heavily infected children within a community has health benefits to the whole community that may justify the cost--even though the youngsters subsequently do become reinfected.

According to Dr. Michael C. Latham, director of the international nutrition program at Cornell University, studies over the last five years are revealing that the health consequences of infection in children--the most vulnerable age group--are far more serious than previously believed. For example, of the 1 billion people infected with roundworm, about a million acquire intestinal obstructions that result in between 50,000 and 100,000 deaths a year, according to Latham.

Roundworms, hookworms and whipworms also enhance the debilitating effects of malnutrition by causing anemia or decreasing absorption of nutrients or sapping the energy that comes from the protein in food, resulting in stunted growth and increased vulnerability to other infections.

In a recent study conducted in Kenya, Latham and other researchers from the Kenya Medical Research Institute and McMaster University in Canada showed that treating children with a single dose of an anti-worm drug, albendazole, brought highly significant improvements in growth rates over untreated children. The drug is seen as valuable because it is effective against each of the life-cycle stages of all three kinds of worms.

Treating a few thousand children in a study and getting good results is one thing, said Dr. Clive Shiff of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, but even for international agencies it’s another thing to do it on a global scale. “It’s ethically needed,” he said, “but not affordable.” Nevertheless, according to Dr. Peter Schantz of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control, interest in the drug approach is sufficient for CDC to be planning its own field trials to verify the positive findings of the Kenya and Montserrat studies.

INTESTINAL PARASITES PLAGUE THIRD WORLD HOOKWORM Larvae penetrate human skin (1), enter blood stream and are carried to heart (2), reach lung via pulmonary artery, penetrate alveoli and enter bronchi (3), ascend trachea to pharynx and are swallowed (4). Mature worms develop in duodenum and jejunum, bite into mucosa and suck blood (5). Fertilized ova discharged in feces (6). WHIPWORM Eggs are ingested with contaminated food (1), larvae leave egg and develop into adult forms (2), adult worms migrate to cecum and appendix where they live and reproduce (3). Fertilized eggs expelled in feces (4). ROUNDWORM Eggs ingested with food (1), larvae emerge in small intestine (2), penetrate gut wall and pass to heart (3), reach lung by pulmonary artery, penetrate alveoli and enter bronchi (4), ascend trachea to larynx and are swallowed (5). Larvae develop into adult worms in small intestine (6) and may pass to other organs. Eggs expelled in feces (7).



コメント:

  1. Geb

    確かに、これは素晴らしい情報です

  2. Soma

    私の意見では、彼は間違っています。私はそれを証明することができます。午後に私に手紙を書いてください、話してください。

  3. Omet

    それは面白いです。教えてください-それについてもっと知るためにどこに行けばいいですか?

  4. Joshua

    フォーラムに特別に登録され、この質問の助けに感謝します。どうすれば感謝できますか?



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